Cooling atoms to ultralow temperatures has produced a wealth of opportunities in fundamental physics, precision metrology, and quantum science.

Laser cooling and atom trapping

The basic principles of laser cooling and trapping

Laser cooling, pioneered by Hansch and Schawlow in 1975 [1], marked a significant breakthrough in atomic manipulation. Exploiting the Doppler effect, this method utilizes counterpropagating laser beams to induce a frequency shift in atoms moving towards them, resulting in enhanced photon scattering and subsequent kinetic energy loss. Chu et al. demonstrated this principle in 1985 [2], achieving remarkably low temperatures near the photon recoil limit.
Advancements in laser cooling techniqu