Cooling atoms to ultralow temperatures has produced a wealth of opportunities in fundamental physics, precision metrology, and quantum science.

Laser cooling and atom trapping

The basic principles of laser cooling and trapping

Laser cooling, pioneered by Hansch and Schawlow in 1975 [1], marked a significant breakthrough in atomic manipulation. Exploiting the Doppler effect, this method utilizes counterpropagating laser beams to induce a frequ